Civil rights history within the U.S. is fraught with concerns over bathroom usage. Beginning with racial desegregation during the Civil Rights Movement to the current fight for trans-inclusive gender neutral bathrooms, the right to who can use restrooms and when directly reflects the overarching tolerance (or, more importantly, the rampant intolerance) in our country. This page will provide a brief history and referrals to select academic articles that educate on these facets of history.
This country was founded on racial inequality and, although the civil rights movement brought essential legal and social change, these rights are still being fought for to this day. The movement began in the 1950's with the landmark U.S. supreme court ruling on Brown v. Board of Education and effectively ended shortly after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968.
Brown v. Board ruled that racial segregation in schools is unconstitutional and effectively overturned Jim Crow laws mandating separate facilities for black and white people. This ruling largely addressed educational facilities and the racial integration of bathrooms became another issue onto itself. This movement is a nuanced, radical part of United States history. For further reading on the movement itself and how the politics of restrooms intersects with it please refer to the resources listed below.