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Sinophobia is a sentiment against China, its people, overseas Chinese, or Chinese culture. Factors contributing to sinophobia include disapproval of the Chinese government, historical grievances, fear of economic competition, and racism. --Wikipedia
This guide was written by three self identified white women. We do not claim to be experts in the area of examining racism or the Chinese-American experience. We believe that in order to dismantle racism and grow into a more understanding society we must know our past in order to analyze the present to enact change that will contribute to a more respectful future.
Our intended audience for this guide is undergraduate students doing research on the topics of racism, Diaspora and the Chinese-American experience both historical and contemporary. We aim to provide multiple source types for information that can be accessible for the scholar as well as the curious. This guide is not complete, nor exhaustive and should not be the end place for your research.
Beginning in the eighteenth century, Chinese immigration to America has been wrought with challenges of racialization and microagressions against Chinese people. Historically, Sinophobia can be traced from the Chinese laborers on the Transcontinental railroad to the threat of the economic powerhouse that is modern China. Restrictions on immigration, cultural & social stereotypes, and the development of Chinatowns are just some aspects of why Chinese have struggled to assimilate in America. Through historical facts, an examination of American perceptions and attitudes towards Chinese and the personal accounts of immigrants, there can begin an understanding of racism in America towards Chinese people.
Each page explores a different aspect of racism towards Chinese in America. The history page contains a collection of primary and secondary resources pertaining to the history of racism in America towards the Chinese, dating back to found of America. Representation in Pop Culture references fiction and non-fiction literature, articles and images that demonstrate American perceptions of Chinese people. Stereotypes & Gender Bias demonstrates the racialization of Chinese in America, and contains sources that best demonstrate "otherness." Branching from stereotypes, Food Culture & Chinatowns is a collection of literature, data and community projects that represent both the misconceptions of Americans and the division between them and Chinese living in America. For those interested in current issues, the Contemporary Issues page contains statistical data, literature and advocate groups. Collectively, this LibGuide provides a variety of examples of the types of information useful to researching Racism and the Chinese-American Experience.
Museums and Historical Sites
Museum of Chinese in America
Located in NYC's Chinatown, MOCA was "founded in 1980, the Museum of Chinese in America (MOCA) is dedicated to preserving and presenting the history, heritage, culture and diverse experiences of people of Chinese descent in the United States."
Angel Island, also known as the Ellis Island of the west, was an immigration station between 1910 and 1940. It was documented as overcrowded, unsanitary and miserable for the detainees who were forced to await entry to the US on the island. Waiting on the island could take anywhere from two weeks to six months. Now, the immigration station is a place of reflection and the island is a state park.
Chinatown, San Francisco
The largest and oldest Chinatown in the US, it is both significant for its place in the history of Chinese immigration to the US, but, has also become a major tourist attraction. Its current inhabitants have chosen to live here due to the affordable housing and cultural familiarity.
Chinese-American Museum of Chicago
"The mission of the Chinese-American Museum of Chicago (CAMOC) is to promote the culture and history––through exhibitions, education, and research––of Chinese-Americans in the Midwest. The museum building, formerly the Quong Yick Co., is located in Chicago's Chinatown, at 238 West 23rd Street in Chicago."
Keywords & Retrieval
Keywords are important for successful researching. Compiling a list of keywords will retrieve more results, making more resources accessible.
- Model Minority
Types of Sources
Assessing a resource requires examination of the author, publisher, sources cited and cross-referencing information with other sources. Below is a list of the types of sources one may want to seek for information.
- Journal Articles
- Archives (primary sources)
General Resources to Get Started
Database compiling materials from thousands of libraries, it contains many types of materials, including books, articles, websites, videos and more.
Library of Congress, Asian Collection
The Chinese collection was started in 1869, and is the largest collection of materials outside China, numbering over 900,000.
Migration Policy - Chinese Immigrants
Data pulled from US census, Chinese immigrant populations have been documented in this article from 1980 to 2017.
Pew Research Center - Rise of Asian Americans
Report from 2013 documenting Asian American populations.
Asian-Nation: History, Demographics and Issues
"An authoritative, one-stop information resource and sociological exploration of the historical, demographic, political, and cultural issues that make up today's diverse Asian American community."
Asian Americans by Authoritative, current, and accessible -- yet scholastically rigorous -- this anthology of personal stories, timely essays, social science readings, and informative educational resources provides a social, economic, and cultural overview of Asian Americans, relates the experiences of Asian Americans, and explores a variety of contemporary social issues deeply affecting Asian Americans. Designed to encourage readers to think critically about social issues facing Asian Americans, it implicitly advances a multi-cultural, comparative, interdisciplinary approach to viewing the Asian American experience, and exposes readers to major theoretical perspectives as well as the latest statistical data on Asian Americans. Offers a wide variety of content material from various political, social, and cultural viewpoints on major contemporary social issues facing Asian Americans -- all written by experts in their fields. Readings cover topic areas such as: Identity and Community in the Shaping of Asian Americans; Asian American History: An Overview; The Contemporary Demography and Socio-Economic Conditions of Asian Americans; Theories about Asian Americans and American Race and Ethnic Relations; Critical Perspectives of the Asian American Experience; Auto-Biographical Experiences of Asian American; Asian Pacific Communities -- Past and Present; Educational Issues; Employment and Occupation; Popular Culture, Imagery, and Stereotypes; Identity, Family, and Culture; Race, Gender, and Culture; Political Empowerment of Asian Americans; and Future Directions of Asian Americans Educational Resources. For anyone interested in the issues, history, and experiences of Asian Pacific Americans.
Publication Date: 1999-09-21
Yellow by Writing in the tradition of W. E. B. Du Bois, Cornel West, and others who confronted the "color line" of the twentieth century, journalist, scholar, and activist Frank H. Wu offers a unique perspective on how changing ideas of racial identity will affect race relations in the twenty-first century. Wu examines affirmative action, globalization, immigration, and other controversial contemporary issues through the lens of the Asian-American experience. Mixing personal anecdotes, legal cases, and journalistic reporting, Wu confronts damaging Asian-American stereotypes such as "the model minority" and "the perpetual foreigner." By offering new ways of thinking about race in American society, Wu's work dares us to make good on our great democratic experiment.
Publication Date: 2003-03-27
Chinese in the U.S. Fact Sheet
Published by the Pew Research Center.
Compliled by Gustavo López, research analyst, Anthony Cilluffo, research assistant, and Eileen Patten, former research analyst.